Codes and Standards

Building codes

Building codes are performance and prescriptive requirements for building construction—including roof systems—that are established and enforced by state or local government agencies to ensure public safety, health and welfare in commercial and industrial buildings. Individual state and federal government agencies generally are free to adopt their own codes; however, most adopt model building codes that are developed and maintained by one of the following model code groups:

ICC

The International Code Council publishes a family of coordinated national model building codes referred to as the International Codes® (I-Codes®). ICC has adopted a three-year update cycle for the I-Codes to allow for new construction methods and technologies to be incorporated into the codes. The most recently published model codes in the I-Code family include the 2012 International Building Code®, 2012 International Residential Code®, 2012 International Energy Conservation Code® and 2012 International Green Construction Code.

The IBC regulates all types of construction except detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses not more than three stories high. The IBC addresses minimum requirements for preserving the public health, safety and general welfare of the occupants of new and existing buildings or structures.

A majority of roofing-related code requirements are provided in IBC Chapter 15, "Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures." Attic ventilation requirements are provided in Chapter 12, "Interior Environment." Chapter 13, "Energy Efficiency," requires buildings be designed and constructed for energy efficiency in accordance with the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Provisions in the IECC include the minimum thermal insulation requirements for roof systems. IBC Chapter 16, "Structural Design Requirements," provides wind-load resistance requirements for roof systems. Below-grade dampproofing and waterproofing requirements are found in IBC Chapter 18, "Soils and Foundations."

According to the International Code Council, the developer and publisher of IBC, state and local jurisdictions in 50 states, the District of Columbia, the U.S. Virgin Islands, New York City, Guam and the Northern Marianas Islands use one of several versions of IBC as the technical basis for their adopted building codes.

The International Residential Code For One- and Two-Family Dwellings provides regulations for the construction of single-family houses, two-family houses, and buildings consisting of three or more townhouse units up to three stories high.

IRC Chapter 9, "Roof Assemblies," contains a majority of roofing-related code requirements. Chapter 8, "Roof-Ceiling Construction," provides attic ventilation requirements. Minimum thermal insulation requirements for ceilings are provided in IRC Chapter 11, "Energy Efficiency." The design and installation of ceiling insulation is not typically part of a roofing contractor's scope of work.

According to the International Code Council (ICC), the developer and publisher of IRC, state and local jurisdictions in 49 states; the District of Columbia; and the U.S. Virgin Islands use one of several versions of IRC as the technical basis for their adopted building codes.

The IECC regulates minimum energy-conservation requirements for new buildings using prescriptive and performance provisions. The IECC addresses energy-conservation requirements for commercial and residential construction. It provides requirements for all types of building energy uses, including heating and ventilating, air-conditioning, electrical lighting, water heating, and power usage for appliances and building systems. The IECC also provides minimum requirements for building envelope and building systems insulation, including wall and roof insulation, windows and doors, mechanical system duct insulation and water distribution system insulation.

Most energy codes in the U.S. have adopted one of several editions of the IECC as their technical basis. In some instances, individual states or other jurisdictions modify the IECC to address specific regional or local issues.

Click here for additional information regarding energy codes, including state energy code adoptions, roofing-related energy code requirements and NRCA's EnergyWise Roof Calculator Online.

According to the International Code Council, the developer and publisher of IECC, state and local jurisdictions in 45 states, the District of Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands use a version of IECC as the technical basis for their adopted building codes.

The 2012 IGCC is a new addition to the I-Code® family of model codes. IGCC is intended to overlay—or be an extension of—other ICC model codes such as the International Building Code (IBC) and International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). For example, IGCC targets 2012 IECC requirements as a baseline for its energy provisions. 2012 IGCC provides jurisdictions a means to augment the baseline by enforcing additional local requirements and project electives defined in 2012 IGCC. The IGCC contains prescriptive- and performance-based requirements.

IGCC is intended to be used by code officials as an enforcement tool to compel the adoption of green and sustainable building design and construction practices significantly beyond the construction market segments addressed by voluntary rating systems. It is designed to allow jurisdictions to tailor the code to address local environmental concerns and advance local agendas.

IGCC applies to the construction of high-performance commercial buildings, structures and systems, including existing buildings subject to alterations and additions, utilizing traditional and innovative construction practices. It also applies to residential occupancies other than low-rise residential buildings that fall under the scope of the International Residential Code.

Articles

The following Professional Roofing articles address roofing-related provisions in the I-Codes®.


NFPA

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) publishes NFPA 5000—Building and Construction Safety Code, and other building code-related publications. All of the NFPA publications are available online.

Articles

The following Professional Roofing articles summarize roofing related provisions of NFPA 5000.


Standards

Standards prescribe levels of acceptability or approved modes to be used in building construction (including roof systems) as bases of comparison. Test standards prescribe test methods and, sometimes, minimum acceptable results. Rating standards establish measurement methods to ensure similar products can be compared on the same bases. Design standards are minimum criteria that are applied to particular aspects of building and/or roof system design. The following are standards organizations that maintain standards affecting the roofing industry. Also, links are provided to Professional Roofing articles discussing standards' provisions and standards' development and application in the roofing industry.


The following list of ASTM International standard materials specifications applicable to roofing and waterproofing provides a synopsis of each standard. This is not an all-inclusive directory of all available standards though many standards developed specifically for use in roofing and waterproofing construction are included. It is not practical to provide here a comprehensive inventory of the ASTM International resources roofing professionals use because of the sheer variety of subject matter related to roofing and waterproofing applications.

ASTM International standard material specifications define formulations, physical properties and performance criteria and prescribe associated minimum levels of testing and minimum acceptable performance levels.

ASTM International's Annual Book of ASTM Standards volumes and individual standards can be purchased from ASTM International by calling (610) 832-9500 or visiting www.astm.org.

ASTM C208, "Standard Specification for Cellulosic Fiber Insulation Board," provides a classification for six types of cellulosic-fiber insulating board. Roof insulation board, also referred to as wood fiber roof insulation and wood fiberboard, is classified as Type II in the standard. Two grades of Type II materials are defined. Grade 1 is primed and designed primarily for use under built-up and polymer-modified bitumen roof systems. Grade 2 is unprimed and designed primarily for use under single-ply roof systems and generally has higher density and higher-quality physical properties.

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ASTM C406, "Standard Specification for Roofing Slate," addresses material characteristics and physical requirements for slate used as roofing shingles. The standard provides a classification for three grades of roofing slate. Grade S1 slates are to have an expected service life of more than 75 years; Grade S2 slates are to have an expected service life of 40 to 75 years; and Grade S3 slates are to have an expected service life of 20 to 40 years.

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ASTM C552, "Standard Specification for Cellular Glass Thermal Insulation," addresses four types of cellular glass insulation. Generally, Type I—flat block and Type IV—board are used in roofing. Both are available as tapered stock that may be used to provide slope for roof drainage.

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ASTM C578, "Standard Specification for Rigid, Cellular Polystyrene Thermal Insulation," provides a classification for 13 types of rigid cellular polystyrene insulation: six are types of expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulation, and seven are types extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation. The different product types are characterized by distinctive physical properties, such as density, compressive strength and thermal resistance (R-value). EPS is more sensitive to ultraviolet degradation and moisture absorption than XPS. XPS used in roofing and waterproofing systems usually is referred to by its compressive strength value, such as 15 pounds per square inch (psi), 25 psi or 40 psi. XPS is more weather-resistant and is used in protected membrane and green roof systems where insulation is not covered by a roof membrane.

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ASTM C726, "Standard Specification for Mineral Fiber Roof Insulation Board," provides material composition description, physical property requirements and dimensional tolerances for mineral fiber insulation board used above structural decks in roof system construction. Manufacturers of fiberglass and mineral wool insulation board products reference compliance with this standard in their product literature.

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ASTM C728, "Standard Specification for Perlite Thermal Insulation Board," provides a material composition description, physical property requirements and dimensional tolerances for perlite thermal insulation board used principally in roof system construction. The standard provides a classification for two types of products: Type I perlite insulation boards are normally 3/4 of an inch or 1 inch thick and laminated to produce boards with thicknesses greater than 1 inch. The 1/2-inch Type I perlite board only is used in the manufacture of laminated composite board roof insulation products; Type II perlite insulation board is used primarily as a cover board over other roof insulation or in re-cover applications. Perlite insulation is available as flat stock and tapered stock that may be used to provide slope for roof drainage.

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ASTM C1167, "Standard Specification for Clay Roof Tiles," addresses material characteristics, performance requirements and dimensional tolerances for roof tiles. The standard provides a classification by grade for durability and a classification by type for appearance. Roof tiles are classified into one of three grades: Grade 1—providing resistance to severe frost action; Grade 2—providing resistance to moderate frost action; and Grade 3—providing negligible resistance to any frost action. Roof tile classification by typefollows: Type 1—high-profile tiles with a rise-to-width ratio greater than 1:5; Type II—low-profile tiles with a rise-to-width ratio equal to or less than 1:5, and Type III—all other tiles, including flat.

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ASTM C1177, "Standard Specification for Glass Mat Gypsum Substrate for Use as Sheathing," provides a material composition description, physical property requirements and dimensional tolerances for gypsum boards with embedded glass mat surfacing designed for use as exterior substrate for a weather barrier.

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ASTM C1225, "Standard Specification for Fiber-Cement Roofing Shingles, Shakes, and Slates," provides a material composition description, physical property requirements and dimensional tolerances for fiber-cement roof coverings designed for shingled application. NRCA believes the test methods contained in ASTM C1225 are not adequate predictors of actual performance of products exposed in the field. Therefore, NRCA does not recommend ASTM C1225 be relied on as an adequate predictor of long-term field performance.

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ASTM C1278 "Standard Specification for Fiber-Reinforced Gypsum Panel," provides material compositions descriptions, physical property requirements and dimensional tolerances for four end-use categories of cellulose fiber-reinforced gypsum panel products.

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ASTM C1289, "Standard Specification for Faced Rigid Board Cellular Polyisocyanurate Thermal Insulation," provides a material composition description, physical property requirements, test protocols and dimensional tolerances for faced polyisocyanurate board insulation and composite board insulation composed of polyisocyanurate and another type of rigid board material. The standard provides a classification for seven types of material. Type I products are generally used in wall sheathing applications and because of their facers and the foam's compressive strength, they are generally considered not to be appropriate for roof system application. Type II generally designates products appropriate for roof system applications. Types III-VII designate various polyisocyanurate composite roof board products.

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ASTM C1492, "Standard Specification for Concrete Roof Tile," addresses raw material characteristics, sampling methods, dimensional tolerances, performance requirements and terminology applicable to concrete roof tiles. The standard provides test procedures for several physical and performance characteristics of concrete roof tile. It provides a classification by type for concrete roof tile profiles. Concrete roof tiles are classified into one of four types: Type I—high profile tile, Type II—medium profile tile, Type III—low profile tile and Type IV—accessory tile, which includes ridge, rake, hip and valley tiles used with concrete roof tiles classified as Type I, Type II or Type III.

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ASTM D41, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Primer Used in Roofing, Dampproofing, and Waterproofing," provides two product type classifications (Type I and Type II) characterized by different solvent-to-asphalt content ratios.

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ASTM D43, "Standard Specification for Coal Tar Primer Used in Roofing, Dampproofing, and Waterproofing," provides physical property requirements for primer products formulated from distillate of coal-tar gas or coke-oven tar.

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ASTM D225, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Shingles (Organic Felt) Surfaced With Mineral Granules," addresses the minimum material composition requirements, low- and high-temperature behavior, as well as other physical properties of cellulose fiber mat-reinforced (organic) asphalt shingles. The standard provides two material classifications—Type I and Type III—for uniform- or nonuniform-thickness shingles of any style. Type I requirements call for a higher minimum product mass per unit area and higher minimum reinforcing felt mass per unit area as compared to Type III. Other material requirements are identical for both types of product.

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ASTM D226, "Standard Specification for Asphalt-Saturated Organic Felt Used in Roofing and Waterproofing," applies to cellulose fiber mat-based (organic) asphalt-saturated felts, including perforated products, intended for use in the construction of built-up roof systems and waterproofing systems. The standard provides a classification for two product types: Type I, commonly called 15-pound or No.15 asphalt felt, and Type II, commonly called 30-pound or No.30 asphalt felt.

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ASTM D227, "Standard Specification for Coal-tar saturated Organic Felt Used in Roofing and Waterproofing," applies to cellulose fiber mat-based (organic) coal-tar-saturated felts intended for use in the construction of built-up roof systems and waterproofing systems. The standard provides a material description and physical property requirements.

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ASTM D312, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Used in Roofing," defines four types of asphalt intended for use as a waterproofing agent and/or adhesive in roof system construction. Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV classifications correspond to roofing asphalts characterized by increasing softening points. (A higher softening point indicates resistance to flow at higher temperatures.) In built-up roof membrane construction, Type III or Type IV asphalt is used; the choice depends on membrane slope. Roofing asphalt is a product of crude oil refining and should not be confused with coal-tar pitch, also used in roofing, which is derived from coal distillation. Although both are types of bitumen, asphalt and coal-tar pitch are not compatible.

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ASTM D449, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Used in Dampproofing and Waterproofing," provides a classification for three types of asphalt suitable for use as a dampproofing coating and waterproofing cement in construction of waterproofing membranes. Type I, Type II and Type III classifications correspond to waterproofing asphalts of increasing resistance to flow when subjected to heat.

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ASTM D450, "Standard Specification for Coal-Tar Pitch Used in Roofing, Dampproofing, and Waterproofing," provides a classification for two types of coal-tar bitumen. Type I coal-tar pitch is intended for use in built-up roof membrane construction; Type II coal-tar pitch is intended for below-grade waterproofing applications. Coal-tar pitch is an excellent waterproofing agent described as self-healing because it readily flows to seal breaks in waterproofing and roof membranes. The same self-healing characteristic restricts the use of coal-tar pitch to roof systems of little or no slope, typically 1/8 of an inch per foot or less. Coal-tar pitch is derived from coal distillation and should not be confused with roofing asphalt, which is a product of crude oil refining. Although coal-tar pitch and asphalt are types of bitumen, they are not compatible.

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ASTM D1187, "Standard Specification for Asphalt-Base Emulsions for Use as Protective Coatings for Metal," provides composition and performance requirements for emulsified asphalt suitable for application in a relatively thick film as a protective coating for metal surfaces. Examples of uses are interior surfaces of galvanized steel and copper gutters. The standard provides definitions for two types of emulsified asphalt suitable for continuous exposure to water.

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ASTM D1227, "Standard Specification for Emulsified Asphalt Used as a Protective Coating for Roofing," provides physical requirements for three material types suitable for use as protective coatings for built-up roof systems and other exposed surfaces sloped at 1/2 inch per foot or more. Type I materials contain fillers or fibers including asbestos. Type II materials contain fillers or fibers other than asbestos. Type III materials do not contain fibrous reinforcement. Within each type classification, materials containing mineral emulsifying agents are designated Class 1, and materials containing chemical emulsifying agents are designated Class 2.

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ASTM D1668, "Standard Specification for Glass Fabrics (Woven and Treated) for Roofing and Waterproofing," applies to materials used as reinforcements in construction and repair of liquid-applied roof and waterproofing membranes. The standard provides requirements for untreated glass fabrics and finished products. Three material type classifications are defined: Type I—asphalt- treated; Type II—coal-tar pitch-treated; and Type III—organic resin-treated.

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ASTM D1863, "Standard Specification for Mineral Aggregate Used on Built-Up Roofs," addresses the quality and grading (size distribution) of crushed stone, crushed slag and gravel used as surfacing on built-up roof systems. The standard provides size distribution requirements for three size classifications.

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ASTM D1970, "Standard Specification for Self-Adhering Polymer Modified Bituminous Sheet Materials Used as Steep Roofing Underlayment for Ice Dam Protection," applies to self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen water and ice dam protection membranes. The standard addresses thickness, tear resistance, adhesion properties, low temperature flexibility and thermal stability, as well as other physical properties.

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ASTM D2178, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Glass Felt Used in Roofing and Waterproofing," applies to nonwoven glass mat materials (felts) impregnated with asphalt intended for use in the construction of built-up roof and waterproofing membranes. These materials are the most commonly used ply sheets for built-up roofing in North America. The standard provides physical property requirements for two types of material: Type IV, characterized by lower breaking strength, and Type VI, characterized by higher breaking strength.

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ASTM D2626, "Standard Specification for Asphalt-Saturated and Coated Organic Felt Base Sheet Used in Roofing," applies to cellulose fiber-based (organic) asphalt saturated and coated felts with mineral surfacing on the top side intended for use as the first ply of a built-up roof system. The standard provides physical property requirements and dimensional tolerances for materials with and without perforations. Nonperforated material defined in the standard can perform as a vapor retarder in roof systems when adhered in a solid mopping of roofing asphalt.

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ASTM D2822, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Roof Cement, Asbestos Containing," applies to asbestos-containing asphalt roof cement suitable for trowel application. The standard provides material composition and physical property requirements. Materials prepared from asphalts conforming to ASTM D312, Type I; ASTM D449, Types I or II; or ASTM D946 (low-softening point asphalt grades also called self-healing) are classified as Type I. Materials prepared from asphalts conforming to ASTM D312, Types II or III; or ASTM D449, Type III (higher-softening point asphalt grades) are classified as Type II. ASTM D2822 Type I and Type II materials are additionally classified as either Class I—used for application to essentially dry surface or Class II—used for application to damp, wet or underwater surfaces.

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ASTM D2823, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Roof Coatings, Asbestos Containing," applies to solvent-based roof coatings of brushing or spraying consistency commonly used in constructing cold-applied built-up roof systems. The standard provides material composition and physical property requirements. Materials prepared from asphalts conforming to ASTM D312, Type I; ASTM D449, Types I or II; or ASTM D946 (low-softening point asphalt grades also called self-healing) are classified as Type I. Materials prepared from asphalts conforming to ASTM D312, Types II or III, or ASTM D449, Type III (higher-softening point asphalt grades) are classified as Type II.

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ASTM D2824, "Standard Specification for Aluminum-Pigmented Asphalt Roof Coatings, Nonfibered, Asbestos Fibered, and Fibered without Asbestos," applies to reflective asphalt-based coatings suitable for application to roofing or masonry surfaces by brush or spray. The standard provides material composition and physical property requirements, including light reflectance requirements. Three material classifications are provided: Type I—nonfibered; Type II—fibered, containing asbestos fiber and Type II—fibered, containing no asbestos fiber.

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ASTM D3018, "Standard Specification for Class A Asphalt Shingles Surfaced with Mineral Granules," applies to asphalt roofing shingles that meet the criteria of ASTM E108, "Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings," Class A fire-resistance classification. A material description and dimensional tolerances are provided. In addition to Class A fire-resistance requirement, the standard also provides material performance requirements for mass loss and behavior on heating and wind resistance. Two types of material are defined in the standard: Type I—self-sealing asphalt shingles and Type II—non-self-sealing asphalt shingles. Only Type I asphalt shingles are required to meet the standards' wind-resistance requirement. Although some asphalt shingle products currently available continue to bear markings indicating compliance with ASTM D3018, it is more common for roofing professionals to look to ASTM D3462, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Shingles Made from Glass Felt and Surfaced with Mineral Granules," for a more complete set of material requirements for asphalt roofing shingles.

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ASTM D3019, "Standard Specification for Lap Cement Used with Asphalt Roll Roofing, Non-Fibered, Asbestos-Fibered, and Non-Asbestos-Fibered," provides a classification for three types of material. Type I is described as brushing consistency lap cement intended for use in the exposed-nailing method of roll roofing application. Two grades of Type I material are defined: Grade 1, made with air-blown asphalt, and Grade 2, made with vacuum-reduced or steam-refined asphalt. Type II material contains asbestos fibers and is described as a lap cement with a heavy brushing or light troweling consistency intended for use in the concealed-nailing method of roll roofing application. Type III material contains stabilizers other than asbestos and is described as a lap cement with a heavy brushing or light troweling consistency intended for use in the concealed-nailing method of roll roofing application.

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ASTM D3462, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Shingles Made from Glass Felt and Surfaced with Mineral Granules," addresses properties of asphalt feedstock, shingle material composition, dimensional tolerances and weights, fire test classification, wind resistance, loss of volatile matter after heating and other physical properties of finished materials. Self-sealing shingles, as well as interlocking shingles, are included in the standard's scope.

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ASTM D3468, "Standard Specification for Liquid-Applied Neoprene and Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Used in Roofing and Waterproofing," applies to synthetic rubber solutions used in roofing and waterproofing. Two type classifications are provided for materials included in the scope. Type I materials are neoprene synthetic rubber solutions for use alone or in combination with chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSPE) synthetic rubber solutions, without (Grade 1) or with (Grade 2) fiber additives. Type II materials are CSPE synthetic rubber solutions. The standard provides material composition requirements, physical property requirements and product labeling requirements.

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ASMT D3747, "Standard Specification for Emulsified Asphalt Adhesive for Adhering Roof Insulation," applies to materials used as adhesives for attaching rigid board insulation to steel roof decks with slopes up to 4:12. These materials may additionally function as vapor retarders when applied as continuous film over a suitable deck surface. The standard defines two material classifications, Type I—suitable for use at temperatures above 40 F (4 C) and Type II—suitable for use at temperatures above 20 F (-7 C). Physical property requirements are provided for both classifications.

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ASTM D 3909, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Roll Roofing (Glass Felt) Surfaced with Mineral Granules," provides composition requirements, physical property requirements and packaging requirements for a category of material used as cap sheets in the construction of built-up roof systems. The standard provides mass and area per roll requirements for products with their top sides completely surfaced with mineral granules, known as no-selvage roll roofing, and products with 2- and 4-inch-wide side lap areas free of mineral surfacing, known as 2-inch selvage and 4-inch selvage, respectively.

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ASTM D4022, "Specification for Coal Tar Roof Cement, Asbestos Containing," applies to asbestos-containing coal-tar roof cement suitable for trowel application. The standard provides material composition requirements and performance requirements.

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ASTM D4434, "Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Sheet Roofing," applies to flexible sheet made primarily from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) resin and containing reinforcement of fibers or fabrics. The following material classifications are provided: Type II—fiber-reinforced sheet in which the fibers do not appreciably affect properties such as tensile strength or ultimate elongation; Type III—sheet internally reinforced with fabric and also permitted to have a fabric backing; Type IV—sheet of a lesser thickness (minimum of 0.036 inch), internally reinforced with fabric and also permitted to have a fabric backing. The standard provides material composition requirements, physical property requirements, dimensional tolerances and sheet marking requirements.

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ASTM D4479, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Roofing Coatings—Asbestos Free," applies to solvent-based roof coatings of brushing or spraying consistency commonly used in constructing cold-applied built-up roof systems. The standard provides material composition and physical property requirements. Materials prepared from asphalts conforming to ASTM D312, Type I; ASTM D449, Types I or II; or ASTM D946 (low-softening point asphalt grades also called self-healing) are classified as Type I. Materials prepared from asphalts conforming to ASTM D312, Types II or III, or ASTM D449, Type III (higher-softening point asphalt grades) are classified as Type II.

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ASTM D4586, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Roof Cement, Asbestos-Free," applies to asphalt roof cement suitable for trowel application. The standard provides material composition and physical property requirements. Materials prepared from asphalts conforming to ASTM D312, Type I; ASTM D449, Types I or II; or ASTM D946 (low-softening point asphalt grades also called self-healing) are classified as Type I. Materials prepared from asphalts conforming to ASTM D312, Types II or III, or ASTM D449, Type III (higher-softening point asphalt grades) are classified as Type II. ASTM D4586 Type I and Type II materials are additionally classified as either Class I—used for application to essentially dry surface—or Class II—used for application to damp, wet or underwater surfaces.

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ASTM D4601, "Standard Specification for Asphalt-Coated Glass Fiber Base Sheet Used in Roofing," applies to fiberglass-based, asphalt-impregnated and -coated base sheet with or without perforations intended for use as the first ply of a built-up roof system. Nonperforated material defined in the standard can perform as a vapor retarder in roof systems when adhered in a solid mopping of roofing asphalt. The standard provides material composition and physical property requirements for two material classifications, Type I—lower mass per unit area and lower breaking strength material and Type II—higher mass per unit area and higher breaking strength material.

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ASTM D4637, "Standard Specification for EPDM Sheet Used in Single-Ply Roof Membrane," applies to cured (vulcanized) synthetic rubber sheet made from EPDM. The standard provides three material type classifications: Type I—non-reinforced; Type II—scrim (or fabric) internally reinforced; and Type III—fabric-backed. This specification requires the sheet be capable of being bonded watertight to itself. Material composition and physical property requirements, dimensional tolerances and sheet marking requirements are defined in the standard.

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ASTM D4811, "Standard Specification for Nonvulcanized (Uncured) Rubber Sheet Used as Roof Flashing," applies to uncured synthetic rubber sheet made of EPDM or polychloroprene (CR) used as watertight flashing exposed to weather. The standard separately classifies the two types of sheet as Type I—EPDM and Type II—CR. Additionally, based on the compound's ability to cure, the materials are classified as Class V—vulcanizing after installation and Class NV—nonvulcanizing. The flashing sheet is required to be capable of watertight bonding to itself, the roof membrane and substrate. The standard provides material composition requirements, physical property requirements and dimensional tolerances.

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ASTM D4869, "Standard Specification for Asphalt-Saturated Organic Felt Shingle Underlayment Used in Roofing," applies to materials used as underlayment in steep-slope roof systems. The standard addresses material characteristics and physical property requirements. It provides four classifications: Type I—#8 Underlayment; Type II—#13 Underlayment (equivalent to ASTM D226, Type I); Type III—#20 Underlayment; and Type IV—#26 Underlayment (equivalent to ASTM D226, Type II).

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ASTM D4897, "Standard Specification for Asphalt-coated Glass-fiber Venting Base Sheet Used in Roofing," applies to specialized base sheet material used as the first ply of a built-up or polymer-modified bitumen roof system. The standard provides requirements for a single material classification: Type II—heavy-duty asphalt-coated fiberglass venting base sheet. Material addressed in this specification is permitted to be perforated or embossed. It is surfaced with coarse mineral granule on the underside of the sheet and is installed in spot-mopped hot asphalt and/or mechanically fastened. The spot adhesion and coarse-texture bottom surface provide space in the horizontal plane under the membrane for venting certain deck conditions.

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ASTM D4990, "Standard Specification for Coal Tar Glass Felt Used in Roofing and Waterproofing," applies to coal-tar-impregnated fiberglass sheet material used as plies in constructing coal-tar built-up roof and waterproofing systems. The standard provides requirements for material composition, dimensional tolerances and physical properties for a single material type classification designated Type 1.

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ASTM D5019, "Standard Specification for Reinforced CSM (Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene) Sheet Used in Single-Ply Roof Membrane," applies to sheet materials reinforced with fiber or fabric. In the roofing industry, the terms CSPE and Hypalon™ commonly are used for chlorosulfonated polyethylene. (Hypalon is a registered trademark of the compound developed by E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Co. Inc.) The polymer compound in CSPE membranes is a thermoplastic elastomer at the time of membrane installation, and laps can be hot-air welded as with other thermoplastic membranes. The polymer compound cures during on-roof exposure to become a thermoset material. Two material classifications are provided: Type I, Grade 1—chlorosulfonated polyethylene membrane backed with fibers, and Type I, Grade 2—chlorosulfonated polyethylene membrane internally reinforced with fabric. The standard provides material composition requirements, physical property requirements and dimensional tolerances.

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ASTM D5643, "Standard Specification for Coal Tar Roof Cement, Asbestos-Free," provides material composition and performance requirements for coal-tar roof cement suitable for trowel application.

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ASTM D6380, "Standard Specification for Asphalt Roll Roofing (Organic Felt)," provides material descriptions, physical property requirements and dimensional tolerances for roll roofing products composed of asphalt-saturated cellulose fiber mat (organic) reinforcement coated on both sides with asphalt. The standard defines three classes of materials: Class S (smooth) rolls surfaced with fine mineral matter to prevent sticking; Class M (mineral) rolls surfaced with mineral granules; and Class WS (wide-selvage) rolls intended for double-layer installation and surfaced with mineral granules for approximately half the width. Additionally, weight categories are defined within each class of materials. In 2002, this standard replaced three withdrawn roll roofing material standards: ASTM D224, ASTM D249 and ASTM D371.

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ASTM D6083, "Standard Specification for Liquid Applied Acrylic Coating Used in Roofing," applies to elastomeric protective roof coatings delivered and applied as water-dispersed acrylic resin (latex). The standard provides a material composition description and physical property requirements for materials in liquid state and performance requirements for the cured film.

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ASTM D6134, "Standard Specification for Vulcanized Rubber Sheets Used in Waterproofing Systems," applies to unreinforced vulcanized synthetic rubber sheets used to protect structures against water entry under hydrostatic conditions. The standard defines two materials classifications based on the principal polymer component of the sheet. Type I materials are EPDM sheets. Type II materials are butyl rubber (isobutylene-isoprene, or IIR) sheets. The standard provides dimensional tolerances, performance requirements and sheet marking requirements.

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ASTM D6152, "Standard Specification for SEBS-Modified Mopping Asphalt Used in Roofing," applies to asphalt modified with styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) copolymers intended for use in SBS polymer-modified bitumen roof systems, built-up roof systems, bituminous vapor retarder systems and adhering rigid-board insulation in various types of roof systems. SEBS polymer-modified asphalt possesses enhanced cohesive strength and elastic properties at service temperatures. The standard provides physical property requirements for this material.

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ASTM D6162, "Standard Specification for Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) Modified Bituminous Sheet Materials Using a Combination of Polyester and Glass Fiber Reinforcements," applies to sheet materials, with or without weather-side granule surfacing, intended for use as the top ply (cap sheet) in constructing SBS polymer-modified bitumen roof systems and flashings, SBS polymer-modified bitumen waterproofing systems and built-up roof systems. The standard defines three material type classifications, Type I, Type II and Type III, differentiated by increasing weights per unit area of sheet. Within each material type classification, the standard distinguishes between Grade G, granule-surfaced materials, and Grade S, smooth-surfaced materials. The standard provides dimensional tolerances, physical property and performance requirements and material appearance requirements.

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ASTM D6163, "Standard Specification for Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) Modified Bituminous Sheet materials Using Glass Fiber Reinforcements," applies to sheet materials, with or without weather-side granule surfacing, intended for use as the top ply (cap sheet) in constructing SBS polymer-modified bitumen roof systems and flashings, SBS polymer-modified bitumen waterproofing systems and built-up roof systems. The standard defines three material type classifications: Type I, Type II and Type III, differentiated by increasing weights per unit area of sheet. Within each material type classification, the standard distinguishes between Grade G, granule-surfaced materials, and Grade S, smooth-surfaced materials. The standard provides dimensional tolerances, physical property and performance requirements and material appearance requirements.

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ASTM D6164, "Standard Specification for Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS) Modified Bituminous Sheet materials Using Polyester Reinforcements," applies to sheet materials, with or without weather-side granule surfacing, intended for use as the top ply (cap sheet) in constructing SBS polymer-modified bitumen roof systems and flashings, SBS polymer-modified bitumen waterproofing systems and built-up roof systems. The standard defines two material type classifications: Type I of lower mass per unit area and Type II of greater mass per unit area. Within each material type classification the standard distinguishes between Grade G, granule-surfaced materials, and Grade S, smooth-surfaced materials. The standard provides dimensional tolerances, physical property and performance requirements and material appearance requirements.

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ASTM D6221, "Standard Specification for Reinforced Bituminous Flashing Sheets for Roofing and Waterproofing," applies to a variety of bituminous sheet materials used for constructing flashings for roof and waterproofing systems. The standard's scope includes a broad range of materials manufactured with various types of bitumen, reinforcements and surfacings. The standard provides two material classifications: Type I—heavy, thick flashing sheets and Type II—lightweight, thin flashing sheets. Material mass, thickness and physical performance requirements are defined in the standard.

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ASTM D6222, "Standard Specification for Atactic Polypropylene (APP) Modified Bituminous Sheet Materials Using Polyester Reinforcements," applies to sheet materials, with or without weather-side granule surfacing, intended for use as the top ply (cap sheet) in constructing APP polymer-modified bitumen roof systems and flashings, APP polymer-modified bitumen waterproofing systems and built-up roof systems. The standard defines two material type classifications: Type I of lower mass per unit area and Type II of greater mass per unit area. Within each material type classification, the standard distinguishes between Grade G, granule-surfaced materials, and Grade S, smooth-surfaced materials. The standard provides dimensional tolerances, physical property and performance requirements and material appearance requirements.

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ASTM D6223, "Standard Specification for Atactic Polypropylene (APP) Modified Bituminous Sheet Materials Using a Combination of Polyester and Glass Fiber Reinforcements," applies to sheet materials, with or without weather-side granule surfacing, intended for use as the top ply (cap sheet) in constructing APP polymer-modified bitumen roof systems and flashings, APP polymer-modified bitumen waterproofing systems and built-up roof systems. The standard defines two material type classifications: Type I of lower mechanical strength and Type II of higher mechanical strength. Sheet mass per unit area and sheet thickness requirements are the same for Type I and Type II materials. Within each material type classification, the standard distinguishes between Grade G, granule-surfaced materials, and Grade S, smooth-surfaced materials. The standard provides dimensional tolerances, physical property and performance requirements, and material appearance requirements.

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ASTM D6298, "Standard Specification for Fiberglass Reinforced Styrene-Butadiene-Styrene (SBS) Modified Bituminous Sheets with a Factory Applied Metal Surface," applies to sheet materials faced with metal foil intended for use as the top ply (cap sheet) in constructing SBS polymer-modified bitumen roof systems and flashings, SBS polymer-modified bitumen waterproofing systems and built-up roof systems. The standard provides one set of physical property requirements and performance requirements for these materials. Dimensional tolerances and material appearance requirements also are provided.

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ASTM D6509, "Standard Specification for Atactic Polypropylene (APP) Modified Bituminous Base Sheet Materials Using Glass Fiber Reinforcements," applies to sheet materials intended for use as the bottom ply (base sheet) in constructing APP polymer-modified bitumen roof systems and flashings, APP polymer-modified bitumen waterproofing systems and built-up roof systems. The standard provides one set of physical property requirements and performance requirements for these materials. Dimensional tolerances and material appearance requirements also are provided.

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ASTM D6694, "Standard Specification for Liquid-Applied Silicone Coating Used in Spray Polyurethane Foam Roofing Systems," applies to solvent-dispersed elastomeric coatings, principally composed of silicone polymers, used as protective top coatings for spray polyurethane foam roof systems. The standard provides physical property requirements for liquid state materials and physical property and performance requirements for cured materials in film form.

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ASTM D6753, "Standard Specification for Coal Tar Adhesive," applies to coal-tar adhesive with or without polymer modification suitable for application to coal-tar built-up and coal-tar polymer-modified bitumen roof systems. The standard provides two material classifications: Type I—brush, squeegee or spray consistency intended for use in the application of field sheet membranes and Type II—heavy brushing or trowel consistency intended for use in the repair of coal tar roofing and flashings and installation of flashings. The standard defines material composition requirements and performance requirements.

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ASTM D6754, "Standard Specification for Ketone Ethylene Ester Based Sheet Roofing," applies to reinforced single-ply roof membranes made primarily from ketone ethylene ester, a thermoplastic copolymer. The standard provides material composition requirements, physical property and performance requirements, dimensional tolerances and product marking requirements.

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ASTM D6757, "Standard Specification for Underlayment Felt Containing Inorganic Fibers Used in Steep-Slope Roofing," addresses inorganic fiber-reinforced organic felt underlayment and inorganic fiber-based felt used as underlayment in steep-slope roof systems. The specifically stated intent of this specification is to provide criteria for producing and evaluating underlayments with a significantly reduced tendency to wrinkle before or after the installation of steep-slope roofing products. The standard provides a single set of performance requirements for all materials that fit within its scope.

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ASTM D6848, "Standard Specification for Aluminum Pigmented Emulsified Asphalt Used as a Protective Coating for Roofing," applies to protective coatings suitable for use on smooth- and granule-surfaced bituminous roof systems and sheet metal. The standard's scope is limited to coatings intended for use on surfaces with positive drainage. The standard defines three material classifications: Type I, nonfibered coatings; Type II, fibered coatings containing asbestos fibers; and Type III, fibered coatings containing no asbestos fibers. The standard provides a single set of material composition requirements, physical property requirements and performance requirements for all materials contained within its scope.

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ASTM D6878, "Standard Specification for Thermoplastic Polyolefin Based Sheet Roofing," applies to reinforced single-ply roof membranes made principally from TPO polymers. The standard provides dimensional tolerances, physical property requirements, performance requirements and material marking requirements.

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ASTM D6947, "Standard Specification for Liquid Applied Moisture Cured Polyurethane Coating Used in Spray Polyurethane Foam Roofing System," applies to single-component, moisture-cured, elastomeric polyurethane coatings used as protective top coatings for spray polyurethane foam roof systems. The standard provides physical property requirements for liquid state materials and physical property and performance requirements for cured materials in film form.

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ASTM D7067, "Standard Specification for Reinforced White PIB Sheet Used in Roofing Membrane," applies to white reinforced nonvulcanized single-ply roof membranes made from polyisobutylene (PIB). Membrane sheets included in the scope of the standard comprise a top PIB coating layer, which has thermoplastic properties at time of installation, and reinforcing backing layer. The standard provides one classification to identify the principal component of the coating portion of the sheet, Type I—polyisobutylene, and one classification to identify the sheet construction, Grade I—backed with fibers. The standard provides physical property requirements and performance requirements for the backed sheet material and separately for the coating portion of the sheet. It also provides dimensional tolerances and marking requirements for finished products.

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ASTM D7311, "Standard Specification for Liquid-Applied, Single-Pack, Moisture-Triggered, Aliphatic Polyurethane Roofing Membrane," applies to elastomeric polyurethane membranes, with or without reinforcement, formed from a single liquid-applied component without additives and curing upon exposure to moisture. The standard provides physical property requirements for liquid-state materials and physical property requirements and performance requirements for cured materials in film form.

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ASTM D7425, "Standard Specification for Spray Polyurethane Foam Used for Roofing Applications," addresses physical properties of currently commercially available spray polyurethane foam (SPF) materials used in SPF roof systems. The standard's 2008 edition provides two material classifications based on thermal resistance: Type I—materials with R-value equal or greater than 5.6 °F∙ft2∙h/Btu and Type II—materials with R-value between 4.1 and 5.6 °F∙ft2∙h/Btu. The standard's 2010 edition will provide three material classifications based on the blowing agent: Type I—materials manufactured with hydrofluorocarbon as primary blowing agent; Type II—materials manufactured with hydrocarbon as primary blowing agent; and Type III—materials manufactured with water as primary blowing agent.

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The following list of ASTM International standard test methods applicable to roofing and waterproofing provides a synopsis for each standard. This is not a complete list of all the available standards though many standards developed specifically for use in roofing and waterproofing construction are included. It is not practical to provide a comprehensive inventory of the ASTM International resources roofing professionals use because of the sheer variety of subject matter related to roofing and waterproofing applications.

An ASTM International standard test method prescribes a specific procedure that produces a test result and, sometimes, minimum acceptable results. ASTM International standard test methods represent the best currently available test procedures for the uses intended based on a consensus opinion of subject matter experts.

ASTM International's Annual Book of ASTM Standards volumes and individual standards can be purchased by calling (610) 832-9500 or visiting ASTM International's Web site, www.astm.org.

ASTM C1250, "Standard Test Method for Nonvolatile Content of Cold Liquid-Applied Elastomeric Waterproofing Membranes," provides a laboratory procedure for determining the average nonvolatile content for one- and two-component cold liquid-applied elastomeric waterproofing membranes. This method can be useful for determining application coverage rates.

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ASTM C1549, "Standard Test Method for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer," provides a procedure for use with a portable measuring device with an integral light source suitable for laboratory and field readings from small-area samples. This procedure is suitable for use with flat opaque materials.

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ASTM D36, "Standard Test Method for Softening Point of Bitumen (Ring-and-Ball Apparatus)," provides a laboratory procedure for testing bitumens with softening points in the range from 86 to 315 F. Bitumens (asphalt, coal-tar pitch) are not characterized by sharply defined melting points. Instead, they soften and begin to flow under their own weight across a range of temperatures. The standard provides an arbitrary definition for a temperature in the softening range of bitumen and a closely-defined method for its measurement. In roofing, the softening point of bitumen is the principal indicator of its fitness for use in a specific application.

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ASTM D228, "Standard Test Methods for Sampling, Testing, and Analysis of Asphalt Roll Roofing, Cap Sheets, and Shingles Used in Roofing and Waterproofing," provides a classification and procedures for sampling and laboratory testing and analysis of asphalt-containing roofing and waterproofing materials of sheet and roll type.

ASTM D3105, "Standard Index of Methods for Testing Elastomeric and Plastomeric Roofing and Waterproofing Materials," is a reference catalog to be used as an aid in the selection of procedures and test methods for use in the evaluation of sheet and liquid roofing and waterproofing materials. Its scope is limited to procedures used in the evaluation of the materials as received or as finished materials or coatings.

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ASTM D3161, "Standard Test Method for Wind-Resistance of Asphalt Shingles (Fan-Induced Method)," applies to self-sealing and mechanically interlocking asphalt shingles. During testing, test assemblies constructed according to shingle manufacturers' installation instructions are subjected to fan-induced winds of specific velocities for specified durations. Based on the test results, shingles are classified as Class A when the test assembly passes a test wind velocity of 60 mph, Class D when the test assembly passes a test velocity of 90 mph and Class F when the test assembly passes a test velocity of 110 mph. UL 997, "Wind Resistance of Prepared Roof Covering Materials," provides a similar test method and the same shingle wind-uplift resistance classifications.

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ASTM D4977, "Standard Test Method for Granule Adhesion to Mineral Surfaced Roofing by Abrasion," provides a protocol for preparing and testing specimens of mineral granule-surfaced roofing materials such as asphalt shingles, asphalt roll roofing and polymer-modified bitumen cap sheets. The test provides a quantitative measure of the quality of mineral granule surfacing retention of tested products. It is intended for use with materials that have not had weathering exposure.

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ASTM D6381, "Standard Test Method for Measurement of Asphalt Shingle Mechanical Uplift Resistance," applies to shingles supplied with factory-applied or field-applied sealant. The standard provides two procedures for laboratory determination of sealant-bonded shingles' resistance to mechanical loading. The procedures are intended to replicate wind-loading behavior. Test specimens are loaded until sealant bond failure and the average maximum load is reported.

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ASTM D6511, "Standard Test Methods for Solvent Bearing Bituminous Compounds," provides procedures for sampling and testing of physical and performance properties of solvent-bearing bituminous materials used in roofing and waterproofing.

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ASTM D7158, "Standard Test Method for Wind Resistance of Sealed Asphalt Shingles (Uplift Forces/Uplift Resistance Method)," applies to sealant-bonded shingles. This standard provides a testing and calculation procedure that produces a wind-speed-based classification rating for asphalt shingles. This standard extends the wind resistance rating system originally employed in ASTM D3161 to higher wind speeds. The resulting wind resistance rating system is summarized in the table.

Wind Speed UL 997 or ASTM D3161 ASTM D7158
60 mph Class A --
90 mph Class D Class D
110 mph Class F --
120 mph -- Class G
150 mph -- Class H

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ASTM D7349, "Standard Test Method for Determining the Capability of Roofing and Waterproofing Materials to Seal around Fasteners," applies to asphalt-based roofing and waterproofing materials designed to seal around penetrating fasteners and prevent the passage of water. This procedure is structured to accommodate the addition of new protocols as needed and allows a referencing specification to select the appropriate test protocol from the available standard test protocols.

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ASTM E108, "Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings," provides procedures for testing the performance of roof assemblies exposed to gas flame and burning pieces of wood. Roof coverings are tested and rated as part of an assembly. The available classifications, in order from most fire-resistant to least fire-resistant, are Class A, Class B and Class C. UL 790 of the same name provides similar test procedures.

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ASTM E907, "Standard Test Method for Field Testing Uplift Resistance of Adhered Membrane Roofing Systems," provides a procedure for field testing roof assemblies' resistance to uplift pressures. The test apparatus creates a localized negative pressure (vacuum) region over the surface of a roof assembly to simulate wind-uplift load. The negative pressure is raised incrementally and the resulting roof assembly deflection is monitored until the agreed upon pressure is reached or roof assembly failure occurs. ASTM E907 test equipment also is specified in the Negative Pressure Test provided in FM Global Property Loss Prevention Data Sheet 1-52, "Field Uplift Tests." NRCA has concerns about the application of ASTM E907 and FM 1-52 test methods as measures of quality assurance for low-slope roof applications. For a discussion of NRCA's concerns click here.

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ASTM E1918, "Standard Test Method for Measuring Solar Reflectance of Horizontal and Low-Sloped Surfaces in the Field," is intended for use on various horizontal surfaces and low-slope roof surfaces. It samples a large area for measurement, can be used to record readings for roughly textured surfaces and requires clear daytime weather to perform measurements. Solar reflectance is determined as the ratio of measured incoming solar radiation and measured solar radiation reflected from the surface under study.

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The following list of ASTM International standard guides and practices applicable to roofing and waterproofing provides a synopsis for each standard. This is not an all-inclusive directory of all available standards though many standards developed specifically for use in roofing and waterproofing construction are included. It is not practical to provide a comprehensive inventory of the ASTM International resources roofing professionals use because of the sheer variety of subject matter related to roofing and waterproofing applications.

An ASTM International standard guide provides options or instructions that offer direction but do not recommend a specific course of action. A guide's purpose is to increase the awareness of information and methods in a subject area. An ASTM International standard practice is a specific set of instructions for performing one or more specific tasks that does not produce a test result.

ASTM International's Annual Book of ASTM Standards volumes and individual standards can be purchased by calling (610) 832-9500 or visiting ASTM International's Web site, www.astm.org.

ASTM C981, "Standard Guide for Design of Built-Up Bituminous Membrane Waterproofing Systems for Building Decks," provides design guidelines for built-up waterproofing systems in plaza deck and promenade applications, which provide for a separate wearing course, over occupied spaces.

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ASTM D1079, "Standard Terminology Relating to Roofing and Waterproofing," is a glossary of standard terminology used in roofing and waterproofing. It provides up-to-date definitions of industry terms.

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ASTM D529, "Standard Practice for Enclosed Carbon-Arc Exposures of Bituminous Materials"; ASTM D4798, "Standard Practice for Accelerated Weathering Test Conditions and Procedures for Bituminous Materials (Xenon-Arc Method)"; and ASTM D4799, "Standard Practice for Accelerated Weathering Test Conditions and Procedures for Bituminous Materials (Fluorescent UV, Water Spray, and Condensation Method)", provide guidelines for exposing asphalt- and coal-tar-based materials to ultraviolet light, moisture and temperature variation under controlled laboratory conditions. Such exposure in a laboratory is intended to reproduce, in a much compressed time period, the weathering effects that occur when materials are exposed for extended time periods in their intended service environments. Materials suitable for investigation using these standard practices have a minimum softening point of 200 F, meaning the bitumen does not visibly flow when vertically oriented specimens are exposed inside the weathering apparatus.

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ASTM D2829, "Standard Practice for Sampling and Analysis of Existing Built-Up Roof Systems," provides guidelines for removing test specimens from existing built-up roof systems and for determining the approximate quantities of roof system components.

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ASTM D3617, "Standard Practice for Sampling and Analysis of Built-Up Roof Systems During Application," provides guidelines for sampling before the application of flood coating and top surfacing. Guidelines are also provided for determining the approximate quantities of system components and the presence of moisture and/or dry (unbounded) spots between built-up plies.

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ASTM D3805, "Standard Guide for Application of Aluminum-Pigmented Asphalt Roof Coatings," provides guidelines for application of materials complying with ASTM D2824 over built-up roof systems, polymer-modified bitumen roof systems, bituminous base flashings, concrete surfaces, metal surfaces, emulsion coatings and solvent-based coatings.

ASTM D5036, "Standard Practice for Application of Adhered Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Sheet Roofing," provides the minimum requirements for the installation of adhered PVC roofing materials. It includes criteria for delivery, storage and handling of materials, prevention of safety hazards, environmental conditions suitable for installation, substrate preparation and different available installation techniques.

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ASTM D5082, "Standard Practice for Application of Mechanically Attached Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Sheet Roofing," provides the minimum requirements for the installation of mechanically attached PVC roofing materials. It includes criteria for delivery, storage and handling of materials, prevention of safety hazards, environmental conditions suitable for installation, substrate preparation and different available installation techniques.

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ASTM D5295, "Standard Guide for Preparation of Concrete Surfaces for Adhered (Bonded) Membrane Waterproofing Systems," provides recommendations for preparation of concrete deck surfaces before the installation of adhered waterproofing. The guide addresses concrete deck surface cleaning, conditioning and repair practices used to remove surface defects and provide adequate adhesion between a waterproofing system and concrete surface.

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ASTM D5469, "Standard Guide for Application of New Spray Applied Polyurethane Foam and Coated Roofing Systems," provides guidelines for the application of new spray polyurethane foam (SPF) roof systems. It includes requirements applicable to substrate preparation, SPF application technique and equipment, and protective top coating and granule surfacing application.

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ASTM D5843, "Standard Guide for Application of Fully Adhered Vulcanized Rubber Sheets Used in Waterproofing," provides information for developing specifications for the application and protection of adhered EPDM, butyl and neoprene vulcanized rubber waterproofing systems installed over concrete substrates. It provides material delivery, storage and handling criteria, safety precaution recommendations, guidelines for addressing concerns related to environmental conditions during installation, recommendations for substrate preparation and installation practices, and guidelines for quality assurance.

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ASTM D5898, "Standard Guide for Standard Details for Adhered Sheet Waterproofing," addresses typical conditions encountered in adhered sheet waterproofing on below-grade structures and plazas. In addition to construction detail drawings, it provides general information regarding materials and construction practices used in adhered sheet waterproofing applications.

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ASTM D5957, "Standard Guide for Flood Testing Horizontal Waterproofing Installations," contains guidelines for testing the watertightness of waterproofing systems installed on substrates sloped at a maximum of 1/4 inch per foot. The guide is intended for waterproofing applications in parking garages, plaza decks over habitable spaces and on other elevated structures. It is not intended for use with building roof systems. The guide addresses recommendations for materials used in testing, test procedure and reporting.

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ASTM D6135, "Standard Practice for Application of Self-Adhering Modified Bituminous Waterproofing," provides installation recommendations for self-adhering polymer-modified bitumen sheets used in new waterproofing installations. It includes criteria for delivery, storage and handling of materials and recommendations for substrate preparation and waterproofing system installation.

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ASTM D6369, "Standard Guide for Design of Standard Flashing Details for EPDM Roof Membranes," provides guidelines and illustrations to assist designers with the preparation of details for flashing conditions encountered in new ballasted, mechanically attached and adhered EPDM sheet roof systems.

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ASTM D6622, "Standard Guide for Application of Fully Adhered Hot-Applied Reinforced Waterproofing Systems," provides minimum installation recommendations for adhered reinforced waterproofing systems applied with hot bitumen to low-slope and vertical surfaces. The standard defines an identification classification made of four types of waterproofing systems. Also, it provides material specification recommendations; material delivery; storage and handling criteria; safety precaution recommendations, guidelines for addressing concerns related to environmental conditions during installation; recommendations for substrate preparation and installation practices; and guidelines for quality assurance, inspection, testing and repair.

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ASTM D6705, "Standard Guide for Repair and Recoat of Spray Polyurethane Foam Roofing Systems," provides guidelines for the repair and recoating of existing spray polyurethane foam (SPF) roof systems. It includes information related to existing roof system inspection and primer selection and requirements applicable to substrate preparation, SPF application and protective coating and granule surfacing application.

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ASTM D6769, "Standard Guide for Application of Fully Adhered, Cold-Applied, Prefabricated Reinforced Modified Bituminous Membrane Waterproofing Systems," provides installation guidelines applicable to below-grade and below-wearing-surface vertical or horizontal applications. It includes recommendations addressing materials storage and handling, environmental conditions, material types, substrate preparation and installation practices.

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ASTM D6950, "Standard Practice for Application of Heat Weldable Atactic Polypropylene (APP) Modified Bituminous Waterproofing Membranes Systems for New Building Decks," provides the minimum installation recommendations for torch-applied and/or hot-air welded APP polymer-modified bituminous waterproofing systems installed over occupied spaces and covered by a separate wearing course. It includes material specification recommendations, criteria for delivery, storage and handling of materials, recommendations for environmental conditions suitable for installation, and guidelines for substrate preparation and waterproofing system installation.

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ASTM D7119, "Standard Guide for Sampling Spray Polyurethane Foam and Coating in Roofing," provides guidelines appropriate for investigating existing spray polyurethane foam (SPF) roof systems and performing quality assurance for new systems. It provides information about sample cut types and their uses, visual inspection techniques, physical property tests and methods used for repairs at sample locations.

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ASTM D7186, "Standard Practice for Quality Assurance Observation of Roof Construction and Repair," provides guidelines for performing visual monitoring of roof system construction and defining the role, qualifications and responsibilities of quality-assurance observers. It applies to new construction, reroofing, repairs and maintenance work.

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ASTM E1980, "Standard Practice for Calculating Solar Reflectance Index of Horizontal and Low-Sloped Opaque Surfaces," provides a procedure for calculating Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) values. SRI incorporates solar reflectance and emittance in a single value, which is a relative measure of the steady-state surface temperature with respect to the standard white (SRI = 100) and standard black (SRI = 0) surfaces under the standard conditions defined in the practice.

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The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a Washington, D.C.-based, private, nonprofit organization that serves as administrator and coordinator of a private-sector national standards system referred to as American National Standards (ANS). ANSI membership comprises nearly 1,000 companies, organizations, government agencies and institutions; NRCA is an ANSI member. ANSI standards directly affect businesses in nearly every industry.

ANSI facilitates the development of ANS by accrediting the procedures of standards-developing organizations. Accreditation by ANSI signifies the procedures used by the standards body meet ANSI's essential requirements for openness, balance, consensus and due process.

Examples of roofing-related standards developed using the ANS process are:

  • ANSI/ASHRAE 90.1, "Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings"
  • ANSI/ASHRAE 90.2, "Energy-Efficient Design of Low-Rise Residential Buildings"
  • ANSI/SPRI ES-1, "Wind Design Standard for Edge Systems Used With Low Slope Roofing Systems"
  • ANSI/SPRI RP-4, "Wind Design Standard for Ballasted Single-ply Roofing Systems"
  • ANSI/SPRI WD-1, "Wind Design Standard Practice for Roofing Assemblies"
  • ANSI/UL 1703, "Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Modules and Panels"
  • ANSI/UL 2390, "Test Method for Wind-Resistant Asphalt Shingles with Sealed Tabs"

Energy codes

Most roofing professionals understand a building's roof assembly serves an important role in controlling a building's overall energy efficiency and building owners' heating and cooling costs. However, some may not realize that codes mandate minimum thermal insulation requirements for the energy efficiency of most buildings.

Energy conservation codes usually are adopted by individual states and are applicable to all buildings within that state. Most states have adopted one of several editions of the International Energy Code (IECC), published by the International Code Council (ICC), to serve as the technical basis of their energy codes. In some instances, individual states modify the IECC to address specific regional or local issues.

To assist roofing professionals, NRCA compiled a database of states' current energy code adoption. This information was obtained either from individual states' Web sites or the Department of Energy's "Energy Code's Program's" website, www.energycodes.gov/adoption/states. Users are encouraged to contact the government agency having jurisdiction to verify the specific energy code(s) applicable to their projects.

EnergyWise Roof Calculator Online

IECC provides two methods of determining commercial buildings' minimum insulation requirements: the use of specific tables within the Code or compliance with American Society for Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc. (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 (ASHRAE 90.1), “Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings,” building envelope provisions.

If you want to determine minimum R-value requirements per ASHRAE 90.1, you should consider using EnergyWise Roof Calculator Online.

NRCA, in partnership with The Roofing Industry Alliance for Progress, developed EnergyWise Roof Calculator Online, a free, Web-based application based in part on the Prescriptive Building Envelope Option contained in ASHRAE Standard 90.1, versions 1999(2001), 2004 and 2007.

EnergyWise Roof Calculator Online also provides a graphical method of constructing roof assemblies to evaluate thermal performance and estimated energy costs under normal operating conditions. This application is intended to be a simplified guide. For complex energy evaluation calculations, consult the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook or an experienced mechanical engineer.

Click here to access EnergyWise Roof Calculator Online.

Roofing-related Energy Code Requirements

If you want to become more familiar with roofing-related energy code requirements, you are encouraged to read "Conserving energy" by Mark Graham, NRCA's Vice President of Technical Services. This article provides an overview of energy codes' minimum requirements and how these requirements apply to existing buildings when reroofing.

Click here to access the article.

In addition, NRCA offers Guidelines for Complying With Energy Code Requirements for Roof Assemblies: International Energy Conservation Code, 2009 and 2012 Editions for sale in NRCA's Bookstore. This publication provides a step-by-step guide for complying with the requirements of the International Energy Conservation Code's (IECC's) 2009 and 2012 editions and ASHRAE 90.1, "Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings," 2007 and 2010 editions, which are referenced in IECC's 2009 and 2012 editions, respectively.

Click here for more information or to purchase Guidelines for Complying With Energy Code Requirements for Roof Assemblies: International Energy Conservation Code, 2009 and 2012 Editions.

 

 

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